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2i4        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

much an expert that he thinks nothing of his own expertness. As
a matter of course, he is a master of the all-important art of speech.
He has the unostentatious dignity which makes his words effective
when he speaks ; he couches what he has to say in words that are
" apt, chosen, clear, well applied, and, above all, in use among
the people"; he uses the native tongue without the pedantic
employment of obsolete literary forms, and is even ready at need
to draw on the storehouse of Latin for new words and usages.

In addition to all these things, he has the wit and intelligence
of the scholar. " Besyde goodnesse," to quote from Sir Thomas
Hoby's translation, " the true and principall ornament of the
mynde in everye manne are letters; " and so the good courtier
must follow the example of the many excellent captains of old
time " which all joined the ornament of letters with the prowesse
of armes." In letters, then, he must " bee more than indyffer-
entlye well seene, at the least in those studyes which they call
Humanitie, and to have not only the understandinge of the
Latin tunge, but also of the Greeke, because of the many and
sundrye thinges that with greate excellencye are written in it.
Let him much exercise himself in poets and no lesse in Oratours
and Historiographers, and also in writing both rime and prose,
and especiallye in this our vulgar tunge." * Still following ancient
usage, he must also acquire skill in music and in painting. These
arts are not only of much practical value, but form a necessary
part of a complete education. With regard to painting, says
Castiglione; " beside that in it selfe it is moste noble and worthye,"
it has many advantages, " especiallye in warre to drawe oute
countreys, plattefourmes, ryvers, brydges, castelles, houldes,
fortresses and suche other matters, the which thoughe a manne
were able to kepe in mynde yet can he not shewe them to others.
And in verye dede who so esteameth not this arte is, to my seemyng,
farre wyde from all reason; forsomuche as the engine of the
worlde that we behoulde with a large sky, so bright with shining
sterres, and in the middes the earth environed with the seas,
severed in partes with hylles, dales and rivers, and so decked with
such diverse trees, beawtifull flowres and herbes, a man may say
it to be a noble and a great peincting, drawen with the hande of
nature and of God : the whych whoso can folow in myne opinion
he is woorthye much commendacion."f

* Pp. 84, 85.          f P. 93-